Convoys Nigeria plc

November 27, 2013

Convoys a National pastime.

IkonAllah's chronicles

I have always viewed the culture of moving in convoy as the hieght of profligacy and impunity. How can over 20 cars be attached to a single individual who goes everywhere with all the cars? Madness. This is the favourite past time of our political leaders. There was a time in Nigeria when even the president was moving with a single car but all this chsnged with the assassination of General Murtala Muhammed who was killled on his way to work. Murtala even lived in his own house not dodan barracks the then presidential villa.
Am not writing this because a popular activist(iyayi the former ASUU president) was killed by the kogi state  governors convoy no and this is not the first time convoys kills innocent citizens. Far from it, Countless Nigerians have lost lives and limbs from the reckless way convoys of political office holders move recklessly on our…

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A Nigerian Perspective on Lifelong Learning

June 12, 2013

Tanar educational consultancy

 

A NIGERIAN PERSPECTIVE ON LIFELONG LEARNING

 

BY

UDOSEN NAMSE PETER

AHMADU BELLO UNIVERSITY

ZARIA,KADUNA STATE

NIGERIA

07065741425

namse.udosen@gmail.com

 

JUNE, 2013

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Abstract

This paper is an exploration of lifelong learning from a Nigerian perspective. It begins with an ex-ray of the various definitions of lifelong learning by scholars. Traditional education in Nigeria as they relate to the philosophy of lifelong learning are examined, taking into consideration local customs and practices. The various aspects of lifelong learning such as: informal learning, self-motivated learning, self-funded learning and universal participation are explored and related to the Nigerian experience. Nine (9) strategies for the effective implementation of lifelong learning practices in the Nigerian Educational system are posited at the end.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Introduction

Lifelong learning is a relatively new field of academic endeavour. It has become a predominant goal for International policy making, and is often advocated as a way to achieve socio-economic development and as a tool for promoting a knowledge based society. Lifelong learning is inbuilt into the nature of human beings. Humans by nature are self-preserving specie. Every society, whether simple or complex has its own system for training and educating its citizens. The education for the good life has been one of the most persistent concerns of men throughout the ages (Fafunwa, 1974). In our rapidly developing world knowledge and education play an even more significant role than ever, so learning and education in Nigeria should not be confined to the school setting alone.

What is Lifelong learning?

The concept of Lifelong learning has to do with all learning activity taken throughout life. According to the Scottish Executive in Sachs (1995); lifelong learning covers the wide range of learning that includes formal and informal. It also includes the skills, knowledge, attitudes and behaviours that people acquire in their day to day experiences. In response to finding an accurate definition for lifelong learning several scholars and institutions have come up with different ideas to what lifelong learning should be. The European council commission (2007) defines it as “all learning activity undertaken throughout life, with the aim of improving knowledge, skills and competence, within a personal, civic, social and or employment related perspective”. It was defined by the Association europeenne des conservatories as “all learning activity, formal or informal”. In the Harper Collins dictionary “lifelong learning is the provision or use of both formal and informal learning opportunities throughout people’s lives in order to foster the continuous development and improvement of the knowledge and skills needed for employment and personal fulfilment”. The common factor in all the definitions stated above are learning activities and throughout life. Lifelong learning can therefore be said to be about acquiring all kinds of abilities, interests and knowledge from Pre School to post retirement. It also implies all forms of learning including formal learning such as regular school programmes to non-formal learning such as vocational skills acquired at work and informal learning such as learning music notes from friends. It may be broadly defined as learning that is pursued throughout life; learning that is flexible, diverse and available at different times and in different places. Lifelong learning crosses sectors, promoting learning beyond traditional schooling and throughout life. This definition is based on Jacques Delors’ (1996) four pillars of education for the future: learning to know, learning to do, learning to live together and learning to be. These are summarized in “learning to learn”. Lifelong learning therefore instils creativity, initiative and responsiveness in people thereby creating a learning society.

Lifelong Education in Nigeria

The above concept and definitions of Lifelong learning brings us to the traditional practice of education in Nigeria, in which education is regarded as a means to an end and not and end in itself. In the traditional Nigerian setting Education was seen as an immediate induction into society and a preparation for adulthood. Children were involved in practical farming, fishing, weaving, cooking, carving and other such crafts. The ability to pass this knowledge from one person to another is very important. The traditional society envisioned lifelong learning by the roles one was expected to play in society. Despite the advent of modern educational systems these traditional practices still take place alongside.

Contemporary educational practices in Nigeria have over the years played down on vocational, non-formal and informal learning: key aspects of lifelong learning. However, the internet has exposed the current generation of Educationists to external experiences through social media interactions, which has affected their perspective. They are now more aware of globalization and are flexible in adopting new global pedagogies. The new National Policy on Education in Nigeria seeks to make education more assessable and lifelong to a wider population through e-learning, adult education, continuous learning, nomadic and vocational education. It also recognizes the fact that that the former system where learners focus on classroom reading ill-suited to equip people to work or live in a knowledge economy and learning society. The notion of a learning society has gained considerable recognition because if learning involves all of one’s life in the sense of both time-span and diversity, and all of society, including its social and economic as well as its educational resources, then we must go even further than necessary overhaul of educational systems until we reach the stage of a learning society. The learning society is an educated society, committed to active citizenship. The aim is to provide learning opportunities to educate adults to meet the challenges of change and citizenship

Despite the shift in policy on education in Nigeria, educational administrators must come to understand that lifelong learning spans a wide range of education issues and speaks to many different audiences. They should come to terms with four major characteristics of lifelong learning as espoused by researchers.

Informal learning

As seen in the various definitions, Lifelong learning encompasses formal and informal learning.  Informal learning describes a lifelong process whereby individuals acquire attitudes, values, skills and knowledge from daily experience and the educational influences and resources in his or her environment, from family and neighbours, from work and play, from the market place, the library and the mass media. It also means that there is no need to talk about planning, organizing and structuring of the learning process. It comes about in an unplanned manner. In Nigeria informal learning also takes the form of folklore, traditional events like age grade rites of passage. Although it is not easily measured informal learning plays an important part in the process of lifelong learning. “Informal learning, Schugurensky (2000) suggests, has its own internal forms that are important to distinguish in studying the phenomenon. He proposes three forms: self-directed learning, incidental learning, and socialization, or tacit learning. These differ among themselves in terms of intentionality and awareness at the time of the learning experience. Self-directed learning, for example, is intentional and conscious; incidental learning, which Marsick and Watkins (1990) describe as an accidental by-product of doing something else, is unintentional but after the experience she or he becomes aware that some learning has taken place; and finally, socialization or tacit learning is neither intentional nor conscious (although we can become aware of this learning later through “retrospective recognition”).   Merriam and others (2007) state: “studies of informal learning, especially those asking about adults’ self-directed learning projects, reveal that upwards of 90 per cent of adults are engaged in hundreds of hours of informal learning. It has also been estimated that the great majority (upwards of 70 per cent) of learning in the workplace is informal (Kim, Collins, Hagedorn, Williamson, & Chapman, 2004), although billions of dollars each year are spent by business and industry on formal training programs.”  Experience indicates that much of the learning for performance is informal (The Institute for Research on Learning, 2000). Those who transfer their knowledge to a learner are usually present in real time. Such learning can take place over the telephone or through the Internet, as well as in person.

 

Self-motivated learning

The second major characteristic of Lifelong learning is self-motivated learning. The human person has an innate desire to explore the unknown and discover new frontiers of life. Although education and training may have economic benefits for individuals, it is recognized that economic incentives alone are not necessarily sufficient to motivate people to engage in education and training. A range of motivational barriers need to be identified and addressed in order for some people to participate in education and training. While some of these barriers are economic and can be overcome with financial assistance, many people are deterred from engaging in education and training by social and personal factors. An Australian survey of participants (in Soni, 2012) in adult education courses identified a range of factors motivating people to undertake adult learning, such as:

  • To upgrade job skills;
  • To start a business;
  • To learn about a subject or to extend their knowledge;
  • To meet new people;
  • To develop self-confidence;
  • To get involved in the community; and
  • To develop personal skills;
  • To participate in social networking

By acknowledging the range of factors that act as both a motivation and barrier to engagement in education and training, lifelong learning policies tend to promote participation in learning for its own sake rather than as a means to a specific end (i.e. employment) which is the prevalent case in Nigeria. The goal of participation in learning thus appears to be more significant than the reason why. This can be seen as an acknowledgment of the range of factors that motivate people to participate in formal and informal learning other than, or in addition to, instrumental goals. The day to day life of an average Nigerian presents him/her with several challenges to encourage self-motivated learning. The lack of many basic infrastructures opens new doors for people to advance their learning. For example the lack of regular power supply should be used as a motivator to learn new technology to solve power problems in many communities. The internet revolution is another avenue for young Nigerians to motivate themselves to enhance their I.C.T skills.  In the diverse communities of Nigeria there is a pool of self-motivated learners who should be harnessed to promote national development. It is quite unfortunate that this category of learners is not given attention by education policy makers and economic planners in Nigeria.

Self-funded learning

Self-funded learning is the third characteristic of the lifelong learning literature. The concept of self-funded learning is linked to the characteristic of self-motivated learning. In recognition of the costs involved in subsidizing lifelong involvement in education and training, the lifelong learning philosophy emphasizes the responsibility of individuals to finance their own continuing education and training with minimal support from government. Nordstorm (2008) defines a lifelong learner as a person who takes responsibility for their own learning and who is prepared to invest time, money and effort in education or training on a continuous basis. The government in Nigeria subsidizes most aspects of adult Education, but enough has not been done to encourage people to see the need to pay to acquire knowledge for their personal development. According to a survey carried out by the University of Calabar most Nigerians feel that learning is for Job seeking and so do not feel they have a need to pay to acquire more knowledge.

 

Universal participation

The fourth distinctive feature of the lifelong learning is a commitment to universal participation in education and training. In advocating ‘lifelong learning for all’, the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) argues that universal participation is necessary for meeting the economic demands of the 21st century. The concept of universal participation includes both informal and formal learning for all purposes – social, economic and personal. As stated earlier, universal participation in lifelong learning is necessary for social cohesion in a time of rapid economic and social change. The world is now a global village and Nigerian educators should make this reflect in their pedagogy and policy.

Strategies for Implementing Lifelong Learning in Nigeria

The following strategies posited by Soni (2012), are relevant to entrench lifelong learning in the Nigerian Educational system.

– First, recognize all forms of learning, not just formal courses of study.

– Partnership working, between public authorities and education service providers (schools, universities, etc.), the business sector and the social partners, local associations, vocational guidance services, research centres, etc.

– Insight into the demand for learning in the knowledge-based society – which will entail  redefining basic skills, to include for instance the new information and communication  technologies. Analyses should take into account foreseeable labour market trends. There is the requirement for collaboration in policy development and implementation among a wide range of partners, including ministries other than education.

– Adequate resourcing, involving a substantial increase in public and private investment in learning. This does not only imply substantially increasing public budgets, but also ensuring the effective allocation of existing resources and encouraging new forms of investment. Investment in human capital is important at all points in economic cycles; skills gaps and shortages can certainly co-exist with unemployment.

– Facilitating access to learning opportunities by making them more visible, introducing new provision and removing obstacles to access, for example through the creation of more local learning centres. Special efforts are necessary in this context for different groups such as ethnic minorities, people with disabilities or people living in rural areas.

– Creating a learning culture by giving learning a higher profile, both in terms of image and by providing incentives for the people most reticent to opt for learning.

– Striving for excellence through the introduction of quality control and indicators to measure progress. In concrete terms, provision must be made for standards, guidelines and mechanisms whereby achievements can be recognised and rewarded.

– Reformulation of access and equity priorities in a lifelong context, by looking at the opportunities that are available to individuals across their life-cycle and in the different settings where learning can occur. It is argued that knowledge-based economies and societies cannot afford to exclude a large part of their population from access to education and learning resources. Furthermore, inequalities in society often raise problems of mutual understanding and adjustment within organisations, in society at large and in the democratic process.

I must add that there must be less emphasis on certification in favour of practical skills.

 

 

Conclusion

Lifelong learning underlies everything education stands for. It should be incorporated into the Nigerian Educational system to make it more meaning full to those who acquire it. Traditional cultural practices in arts, health care, sports, social life and technology should be encouraged informal schools to make learning more domesticated without losing a world view of learning. For education to be truly meaningful to Nigerians it should embrace all aspects of lifelong learning.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

Fafunwa, A. B. (1974). History of Education in Nigeria. London: George Allen and Unwin         Ltd

European Council Commission. (2007). Lifelong learning. retrieved from http://www.ec.europa.eu   on 9/06/2013

Delors, J. (1996). Learning: The Treasure Within. (Report to UNESCO of the International

Commission on Education for the Twenty-first Century), retrieved from http://www.unesco.org/education/

Kim, K., Collins Hagedorn, M., Williamson, J., Chapman, C. (2004). Participation in Adult  Education and Lifelong Learning: 2000–01 (NCES 2004–050). U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office

Marsick, V. J., & Watkins, K. E. (1990). Informal and incidental learning in the workplace. London and New York: Routledge.

Merriam, S. B., Caffarella, R. S., & Baumgartner, L. M. (2007). Learning in Adulthood: A Comprehensive Guide. San Fransisco: Jossey-Bass.

Nordstrom N. (2008). Top 10 Benefits of Lifelong Learning. Retrieved from   http://www.selfgrowth.com/articles/Top_10_Benefits_of_Lifelong_Learning.html on 13/06/2013

Sachs, P. (1995). Transforming Work: Collaboration, Learning, and Design.

  Communications of the ACM, 38(9), pp. 36-44.

Soni S. (2012). Lifelong Learning – Education and Training. FIG working week reports

February 25, 2013

Namse's Blog

culled from Ynaija!
 
 

 

What purpose exactly, does this elephant in the room, serve in the government of Goodluck Ebele Jonathan?

Charly Boy

 

While we are on the subject of end of year lists, this one should be really important. There are certain people who have made it their business to ensure that we hear the sound of their voices in the New Year. We are sending this list up to Heaven as a prayer request – we want to hear them no more in 2013.

1. Osaze Peter Odemwingie: What is it about grown men that makes them lose all sense of… sense once they sign into Twitter? Osaze does it all – rant, whine, moan, and make a grand fool of himself as we have seen on full display over the past few weeks just because the national team made a wise decision to call…

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The truth and meaning of human sexuality

February 17, 2013

Introduction

I will begin by explaining that sexuality is not all about what we do with our genitals, as erroneously though by many. It is not all about intercourse or other sexual activities. This is a sexuality myth portrayed by popular media and culture.

What is sexuality?

According to the National catechetical directory for U.S.A Catholics, sexuality is the fundamental component of personality, one of its modes of being, of manifestation, of communication with others, of feeling, of expressing and living human love. It permeates and affects our thoughts, feelings and actions. As stated in Holy Scripture, God created man in his own image … male and female he created them. Our sexuality defines how we as males or females interact with each other. Let us now take a look at the major concepts that are embedded in sexuality. They are called the 5 circles of sexuality.

1. Sensuality

This is the awareness and feeling about your body and other people’s body. Sensuality allows us to enjoy the pleasure our bodies can give us and others. It affects our behavior in the following ways:

Body image—Feeling attractive and proud of one’s own body and the way it functions influences many aspects of life. Adolescents often choose media personalities as the standard for how they should look, so they are often disappointed by what they see in the mirror.

Satisfying skin hunger—The need to be touched and held by others in loving, caring ways is often referred to as skin hunger.

Feeling physical attraction for another person—The center of sensuality and attraction to others is not in the genitals (despite all the jokes). The center of sensuality and attraction to others is in the brain, humans’ most important “sex organ.” The unexplained mechanism responsible for sexual attraction rests in the brain, not in the genitalia.

2. Sexual Identity

Sexual identity is a person’s understanding of who she/he is sexually, including the sense of being male or of being female. Sexual identity consists of three “interlocking pieces” that, together, affect how each person sees him/herself. Each “piece” is important.

  • Gender identity – Knowing whether one is male or female. Most young children determine their own gender identity by age two. Sometime, a person’s biological gender is not the same as his/her gender identity—this is called being transgender.
  • Gender role – Identifying actions and/or behaviors for each gender. Some things are determined by the way male and female bodies are built or function. For example, only women menstruate and only men produce sperm. Other gender roles are culturally determined.
  • Sexual orientation— whether a person’s primary attraction is to people of the other gender (heterosexuality) or to the same gender (homosexuality) or to both genders (bisexuality) defines his/her sexual orientation. Sexual orientation begins to emerge by adolescence although many gay and lesbian youth say they knew they felt same sex attraction by age 10 or 11.

3. Sexual Intimacy

Sexual intimacy is the ability to be emotionally close to another human being and to accept closeness in return. Several aspects of intimacy include:

  • Sharing—Sharing intimacy is what makes personal relationships rich. While sensuality is about physical closeness, intimacy focuses on emotional closeness.
  • Caring—Caring about others means feeling their joy and their pain. It means being open to emotions that may not be comfortable or convenient.
  • Liking or loving another person—Having emotional attachment or connection to others is a manifestation of intimacy.
  • Emotional risk-taking—To have true intimacy with others, a person must open up and share feelings and personal information. Sharing personal thoughts and feelings with someone else is risky, because the other person may not feel the same way. But it is not possible to be really close with another person without being honest and open with her/him.

4. Reproduction and Sexual Health

These are a person’s capacity to reproduce and the behaviors and attitudes that make sexual relationships healthy and enjoyable. The actual processes of conception, pregnancy, delivery, and recovery following childbirth are important parts of sexuality.

5. Sexualization

Sexualization is that aspect of sexuality in which people behave sexually to influence, manipulate, or control other people. Often called the “shadowy” side of human sexuality, sexualization spans behaviors that range from the relatively harmless to the sadistically violent, cruel, and criminal. These sexual behaviors include flirting, seduction, withholding sex from an intimate partner to punish her/him or to get something, sexual harassment, sexual abuse, and rape. Teens need to know that no one has the right to exploit them sexually and that they do not have the right to exploit anyone else sexually.

 

The purpose of sexuality

Human being created in God’s image is the main reference point for understanding all aspects of humanity, including sexuality. Sexuality is a source of joy and pleasure, the creator himself established as a means of uniting man and woman in a perpetual bond of love.  As man is marked with the indelible impression of God’s image he is exclusively different from the rest of creation. Human sexuality is one particularly area where this exclusiveness is profoundly manifested. For animals conjugal activities are merely a biological process for reproduction, but in man sexuality is ordered to the conjugal love of man and woman. Therefore sexuality in humans, the means of which man and woman give themselves to one another, through acts which are proper and exclusive to spouses, are not simply biological but concern the innermost being of the person (CCC, 2361). The sexual act reveals its true nature and nobility when it is considered in its supreme origin, God, who is love. Under this light, there clearly appear the characteristic marks and demands of conjugal love, which is the consummation of sexuality. These marks are:

  • The sexual act is first of all fully human, that is to say it is of senses and of the spirit at the same time. It is not simply a transport of instinct and sentiment, but also a means of uniting two souls permanently.
  • Sexuality is ordered towards the transmission of life.
  • The act is total, whereby a couple generously share everything without reservation.
  • It is faithful and exclusive until death.

In summary, the conjugal love of man and woman stands under the twofold obligation of fidelity and fecundity (openness to life).

Current trends

In modern times many people perceive sexuality as a license of sexual freedom. Sex has become a tool for self gratification and social exploitation. Social media, TV, radio, magazines are saturated with images of value-free sexual activity. In fact, if an alien were to land on earth today, it would think that without sex it would die. Sex has been over-hyped and elevated onto a pedestal of permissiveness. This attitude has lead to the development of an anti-life mentality, unbalanced relationships, heartbreak and failed marriages.

Chastity and sexuality

Chastity means the successful integration of sexuality within the person and thus the inner unity of man in his bodily and spiritual being. Chastity includes an apprenticeship in self-mastery which is training in excising human freedom. The alternative is clear: either man governs his passions and finds peace, or he/she lets himself be dominated by them and becomes unhappy. Unfortunately, the latter is the case among most youths today. Chastity comes under the cardinal virtue of temperance, which seeks to filter through the passions and appetites of senses with reason. It produces real liberation by freeing one’s self from the tyrannical excesses of sex when this has become a recreational activity. It controls without destroying the urges of instinct.  Self-mastery is a long and exacting work. It must be noted that it cannot be acquired once and for all. It presupposes renewed effort at all stages of life.

Conclusion

The divine image is not just engraved on his soul but on his body also. Man’s body thus belongs to God. Therefore the dignity of man is to be understood in terms of his whole personality; soul and body taken together. The circles of our sexuality should be understood in this light. Our sexual identity, sensuality, intimacy, reproductive behavior etc cannot be separated from our relationship with God. Everything good created is good, including sexuality. Our sexuality becomes harmed when we abuse freedom and stray away from revealed truth.

 

 

Reasoning with the pope

February 15, 2013

Pope Benedict XVI shocked the Church and the world when he announced on Monday, the Feast of Our Lady of Lourdes, his decision to resign from the highly exalted office he occupied since 19 April, 2005 as the Vicar of Christ and the Bishop of Rome, come February 28, 2013. Since then there have been no ending in the media to the torrents of commentaries, stories, reportage, photo-clips on the Pope, his times, the Church as a whole and many more. While some people, even well-meaning Catholics, have expressed disappointment at the Pope’s action, and in spite of pockets of conspiracy theories here and there, the reactions from official ecclesial and secular quarters have been largely positive. However, some people are simply not able to come to terms with the idea of a retired Pope. They consider it a thing akin to a sacrilege. The questions agitating such minds are: Why will the Pope act in this manner? How are we to explain this strange action? What does it portend for the Church and the world?
In this piece, I wish to highlight some points which may help us better understand the circumstances that could have informed the pope’s decision.

1. OLDEST POPE IN 300 YEARS: When Benedict XVI became the Pope, he was already 78 years, which made him the oldest person to assume that office in the past 300 years. We will recall that his predecessor, Pope John Paul II became the Pope at the age of 57 and died at the age of 84. Meanwhile Pope Benedict XVI will turn 86 years by 16 April 2013.
2. BACKBONE OF POPE JOHN PAUL II: Before being called to the Vatican, Pope Benedict XVI, then Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger was a professor of theology and a Vatican II expert. He contributed enormously to the Papacy of John Paul II as the Prefect of the Congregation for Doctrine and Faith for 24years; 1981 to 2005. This is a key department in the entire life and administrative set up of the Church. Therefore, one may not be fair in celebrating the success of the great Pope John Paul II without giving some due credit to Pope Benedict XVI. The implication so far from the above is that Pope Benedict XVI was already well-spent and tired before he became the Pope.
3. SACRIFICE: From the points above, one may wonder why Pope Benedict was chosen or why he still accepted to be the Pope if he knew he was tired. The answer lies in some factors considered in the process of appointing a Pope. When a Pope dies, the Cardinals in conclave are led in a retreat which helps them, among other things, become more vividly aware of the needs of the Church at the particular age and time, and what should be the Church’s major form of witness to the world at the time. Besides, unlike many secular bodies and governments, the Catholic Church is built on continuity. Therefore due to the high level of achievement recorded during the long reign of Pope John Paul II, the Cardinals at the April 2005 conclave reasoned that there was need to elect someone who was closest in thoughts with Pope John Paul II to manage the papacy. The most fitted for the description as the votes turned out was Cardinal Ratzinger who accepted the office with trepidation but a high sense of sacrifice. It was a huge sacrifice for him because severally before that time, he had expressed his desire to resign from being the Prefect of the Congregation he managed. He was even more desperate to retire after the death of his great friend John Paul II. In a sense therefore, one may say that the papacy of Pope Benedict XVI is an extension of that of Pope John Paul II. It seems to me that Pope John II’s era is just coming to an end.
4. HEROIC ACT OF LEADERSHIP: Pope Benedict’s action speaks volume of his maturity, self-confidence, sincerity of purpose, humility and above all his ardent FAITH in God and his love for the holy Church. Faith, because he firmly believes that the Church is also truly divine not just human. Shows humility that the burden of the Church essentially rests on the outstretched arms of Jesus Christ on the cross and not on any human shoulders. It is a lesson to all in leadership position in church and society that it could be unjust and self-serving to stay on in power when one realizes that he is no longer efficient or effective in the office. It takes a lot of grace, maturity and intelligence to come to this knowledge and enormous courage to accept it. One recalls the message in that great but short prayer; Lord grant me the serenity to accept the things I cannot change, courage to change the things I can, and wisdom to know the difference.

5. CHRIST MUST INCREASE, I MUST DECREASE: Reading the script of his resignation, the Holy Father mentioned his failing health as a core reason he decided to resign. Some conspiracy theorists have interpreted this to mean that he has some terminal deceases. Commonsensically, a man of 85 who has handled such huge and busy office is definitely old enough to be physically incapacitated. The salient point we need to note however is that the Pope is not necessarily concerned about his health in the sense that he is afraid that if he continues in the office, he might soon die, rather his concern is the good and progress of the life of the Church. He realizes how very crucial the services required of the office of the Vicar of Christ are, he realizes that no one must be a stumbling block to the work of Christ, he therefore chose not to allow his physical weakness to hinder or slow it down. In an age where human beings will do anything and everything to hold on to power, as we experience in Nigeria and many countries, it is strange to see a man freely give up power and all the paraphernalia that goes with it. As already noted above, a very deep implication from this action is a profound profession of faith. Perhaps that is also the reason he declared a year of faith. By this action, Pope Benedict teaches everyone that the burden of the Church does not essentially rest on any human shoulders, but on the outstretched arms of Jesus on the cross. The Church is the body of Christ; the work is the work of Christ; the flock is the flock of Christ; in life or death we belong to Christ. Christ is the center and Christ is all. He has promised he would always guide and protect his Church. The gift of His Holy Spirit is constantly renewed in her. Consequently, the message is that what matters most is for the work of God to advance, no one needs pretend that the Church will collapse without him.
6. CANONICAL PROVISION: A major reason why many people in the Church and the world are shocked at Pope Benedict’s resignation is because it is a rare occurrence. In the over 2000 years of the papacy, it is not usual to see a Pope resign. It is however pertinent to remind us that the Canon law, the body of laws guiding the life of the Church, makes provision for a serving Pope to be able to resign if he so wishes. Canon 332 paragraph 2 gives three conditions: First, that the resignation is freely expressed; secondly, that it be adequately manifested; and thirdly, that the process is valid whether anyone accepts it or not. This is what Pope Benedict applied. Thus he is acting within the law of the Church. Pope Benedict’s resignation is historic not only because it is up to 600 years ago when Pope Gregory XII resigned as a Pope in 1415, but because it seems it is the first time a pope is resigning simply because he is old and physically incapable, totally on his own volition and not forced by factors or circumstances outside of him. One expects that this action will rub positively on the attitude of office holders in Church and society.
Moreover, because of the unprecedented nature of this event, Christ’s faithful look forward to the Cardinals to know how the Pope is to be addressed after resignation. Would he be called “Pope Emeritus” or “Emeritus Bishop of Rome”?
7. NO SURPRISE: Much as the Pope’s action is shocking, it has not come as a complete surprise to those who are conversant with the life and works of this strong-willed Pope. His predecessor was at the verge of resignation in 2000. In his book, “In the Light of Faith”, written in 2010, Pope Benedict says “If a pope clearly realizes that he is no longer physically, psychologically and spiritually capable of handling the duties of his office, then he has a right, and under some circumstances, also an obligation to resign.” What’s interesting is how long ago this decision was made — shortly after the pope’s trip to Cuba, which was in March of last year, he manifested so much tiredness and desire to resign. Against the conspiracy theory that the Pope is forced out of power because of the controversies and scandals that have been orchestrated against the Church out of proportion by the media, it is instructive to note that was before the whole butler story even broke. Problems have always been in the Church. Problems will remain in the Church because it is made up of human beings. Jesus knew this. That is why he promised that the Spirit will be with her so that the gates of the underworld will not prevail against her. Pope Benedict has opened the doors for successive popes and even Bishops if need be to resign with greater ease without feeling morally obliged to remain until death.

In conclusion, the Church at this threshold of history calls her children to prayer for the body of Christ, the Pope and the Cardinals who will soon be in conclave. Come Holy spirit and fill the hearts of your faithful, and enkindle in us the fire of your love.
Rev, Fr. Mike Umoh
Director,
Center for Media Development
Catholic Archdiocese of Lagos
Padremikeumoh@gmail.com
08023062860

Addendum: 
Pope Benedict’s Address on Resignation of the See of Rome
“I have come to the certainty that my strengths, due to an advanced age, are no longer suited to an adequate exercise of the Petrine ministry”
Vatican City, February 11, 2013 (Zenit.org). | 198 hits
Dear Brothers,
I have convoked you to this Consistory, not only for the three canonizations, but also to communicate to you a decision of great importance for the life of the Church. After having repeatedly examined my conscience before God, I have come to the certainty that my strengths, due to an advanced age, are no longer suited to an adequate exercise of the Petrine ministry. I am well aware that this ministry, due to its essential spiritual nature, must be carried out not only with words and deeds, but no less with prayer and suffering. However, in today’s world, subject to so many rapid changes and shaken by questions of deep relevance for the life of faith, in order to govern the bark of Saint Peter and proclaim the Gospel, both strength of mind and body are necessary, strength which in the last few months, has deteriorated in me to the extent that I have had to recognize my incapacity to adequately fulfill the ministry entrusted to me. For this reason, and well aware of the seriousness of this act, with full freedom I declare that I renounce the ministry of Bishop of Rome, Successor of Saint Peter, entrusted to me by the Cardinals on 19 April 2005, in such a way, that as from 28 February 2013, at 20:00 hours, the See of Rome, the See of Saint Peter, will be vacant and a Conclave to elect the new Supreme Pontiff will have to be convoked by those whose competence it is.
Dear Brothers, I thank you most sincerely for all the love and work with which you have supported me in my ministry and I ask pardon for all my defects. And now, let us entrust the Holy Church to the care of Our Supreme Pastor, Our Lord Jesus Christ, and implore his holy Mother Mary, so that she may assist the Cardinal Fathers with her maternal solicitude, in electing a new Supreme Pontiff. With regard to myself, I wish to also devotedly serve the Holy Church of God in the future through a life dedicated to prayer.
From the Vatican, 10 February 2013
BENEDICTUS PP XVIImage

10 people that need to shut up 2013!

December 31, 2012
culled from Ynaija!
 
 

 

What purpose exactly, does this elephant in the room, serve in the government of Goodluck Ebele Jonathan?

Charly Boy

 

While we are on the subject of end of year lists, this one should be really important. There are certain people who have made it their business to ensure that we hear the sound of their voices in the New Year. We are sending this list up to Heaven as a prayer request – we want to hear them no more in 2013.

1. Osaze Peter Odemwingie: What is it about grown men that makes them lose all sense of… sense once they sign into Twitter? Osaze does it all – rant, whine, moan, and make a grand fool of himself as we have seen on full display over the past few weeks just because the national team made a wise decision to call him bluff. To matters worse, he can’t even string a correct English sentence together. Just go away, Peter.

(Read ‘Osaze lacks respect… We can’t continue to baby-sit him’ – Joseph Yobo HERE]

2. Doyin Okupe: What purpose exactly, does this elephant in the room, serve in the government of Goodluck Ebele Jonathan? We all know already that he is ineffective, making statements that rile even members of the President’s own party. And even though I evidently see that he enjoys the role of a lowly attack dog much too much, it still doesn’t make it right that  this administration has inflicted this torture upon us. If you must get an attack dog, at least get ones who thinks before he talks, Aso Rock please.

3. Kola Boof: Predictably, all hell will be let loose once her Google Alert informs her of this rare mention of her name in the media. Rare, but not for want of trying. From picking fights with Nigerian blogger Linda Ikeji (and then calling her “my sister” five minutes after) to claiming that she “deep throats” actor Djimon Honsou (who of course ran as far away from her as any sane man would), the once-upon-a-time author Kola Boof has been a machine of Twitter scandals and transparent attention-seeking. Unfortunately, she is not even nearly interesting enough.

4. Jim Iyke: This man certainly is in front of the list of those whose feet are permanently in their mouths, and it is mission successful: Iyke has in the past few months irrevocably de-mystified himself on social media. It is almost impossible to have followed his Twitter and Facebook rants – against real and perceived enemies, bloggers, baby mamas, haters from Abuja and those who accuse him of being an incurable gigolo – and still take him seriously. Then, to make matters worse, in the only one serious movie he did this year – Last Flight to Abuja – he also messed up. Jim, stop talking to the public. Lock yourself in a room and focus on giving yourself a good talking to. This is now an emergency.

[Read ‘Be my guest baaaaaaaaaastard’ – Blogger writes Jim Iyke a friendly letter’ HERE]

5. Donald Trump: Between all those moronic tweets he ends up deleting, the public put-down by his friend Barbara Walters, and reports that his children have let him away from his computer slowly, yeah you kind of have to feel sorry for Donald Trump. He has asked for Obama’s birth certificate, and been ridiculed for it, asked for his university degrees, suggested the United States elections were rigged, and had multiple nervous breakdowns in the full glare of the world over the past year. Is he having ANY sex at all?! ‘Cause you see, that can be a problem…

6. Dokubo Asari: Only in a country like Nigeria will a clown like Dokubo even be taken seriously, but here we are. The “former” militant who now sits on a Federal Government board now has a clear modus – when you get hungry, criticise Jonathan… and wait for manna to drop. He has said so many wildly contradictory things this year, and switched his position so very many times, I am surprised how he is able to even catch his breath. Someone, drown him in the creeks, please.

7. Labaran Maku: For thanking Goodluck Jonathan for bringing Facebook in Nigeria, this man just needs to go. Yes, I know he said this like 100 years ago, but I don’t care. He has not made any sense since then until now. He has to go. Enough is enough.

8. Femi Fani-Kayode: Bless his heart, you just have to wonder why Fani-Kayode is yet to kick off a successful career as a spy novelist. Seriously, anyone who can “reveal” the existence of blood sucking demons in the ministry of aviation, believe publicly in the existence of the Illuminati and try (and try and try again) to convince us that Barack Obama just might be the anti-Christ should be a literary legend. Very unfortunately, Fani-Kayode is damn serious about all these things he says. If I were a family member, seriously, I’d be very worried. Pray for him.

[Read ‘Femi Fani-Kayode asks: Can Obama be trusted?’ HERE]

9. Marilyn Ogar: If you don’t know her… Well you should. The spokesperson of the State Security Service is that angry, scary woman who comes on television frequently and says the very first thing that comes to her head. It could be “The SSS employs crazy-looking women who don’t have any sense of occasion and actually make us frightened if these are the kinds of people that work in the nation’s intelligence networks” and she will certainly say it. Just like that. No pausing to think. It would be funny, if her position wasn’t actually so important. Seriously don’t her bosses know just how BAD she is on TV?!

10. Charly Boy actually came out in public and said he has a female “person” inside of him called Linda. A grandfather said this! In PUBLIC! The end.

by Chi Ibe

The Sanctity of Human Life

November 5, 2012

“Can. 1398 A person who procures a completed abortion incurs a latae sententiae excommunication.” (1983 Code of Canon Law)

“Therefore from the moment of its conception life must be guarded with the greatest care, while abortion and infanticide are unspeakable crimes.” (Second Vatican Council)

“The woman who destroys voluntarily a fetus incurs the pain of murder.” (St. Basil the Great, Doctor of the Church)”Among all the crimes which can be committed against life, procured abortion has characteristics making it particularly serious and deplorable.” (Pope John Paul II)

“Those who give drugs causing abortions are murderers themselves, as well as those who receive the poison which kills the fetus.” (St. Basil the Great, Doctor of the Church, c. 369 A.D.)

“But no word has the power to change the reality of things: procured abortion is the deliberate and direct killing, by whatever means it is carried out, of a human being in the initial phase of his or her existence, extending from conception to birth.” (Pope John Paul II)

“Some go so far as to take potions, that they may insure barrenness, and thus murder human beings almost before their conception. Some, when they find themselves with child through their sin, use drugs to procure abortion, and when (as often happens) they die with their offspring, they enter the lower world laden with the guilt not only of adultery against Christ but also of suicide and child murder.” (St. Jerome, Doctor of the Church)

“Why sow where the ground makes it its care to destroy the fruit? where there are many efforts at abortion? where there is murder before the birth? for even the harlot thou dost not let continue a mere harlot, but makest her a murderess also. You see how drunkenness leads to whoredom, whoredom to adultery, adultery to murder; or rather to a something even worse than murder. For I have no name to give it, since it does not take off the thing born, but prevent its being born. Why then dost thou abuse the gift of God, and fight with His laws, and follow after what is a curse as if a blessing, and make the chamber of procreation a chamber for murder, and arm the woman that was given for childbearing unto slaughter?” (St. John Chrysostom, Doctor of the Church)

“The moral gravity of procured abortion is apparent in all its truth if we recognize that we are dealing with murder and, in particular, when we consider the specific elements involved. The one eliminated is a human being at the very beginning of life. No one more absolutely innocent could be imagined. In no way could this human being ever be considered an aggressor, much less an unjust aggressor! He or she is weak, defenseless, even to the point of lacking that minimal form of defense consisting in the poignant power of a newborn baby’s cries and tears. The unborn child is totally entrusted to the protection and care of the woman carrying him or her in the womb. And yet sometimes it is precisely the mother herself who makes the decision and asks for the child to be eliminated, and who then goes about having it done.” (Pope John Paul II, 1995)

“The Church’s canonical discipline, from the earliest centuries, has inflicted penal sanctions on those guilty of abortion. This practice, with more or less severe penalties, has been confirmed in various periods of history. The 1917 Code of Canon Law punished abortion with excommunication. The revised canonical legislation continues this tradition when it decrees that ‘a person who actually procures an abortion incurs automatic (latae sententiae) excommunication’. The excommunication affects all those who commit this crime with knowledge of the penalty attached, and thus includes those accomplices without whose help the crime would not have been committed. By this reiterated sanction, the Church makes clear that abortion is a most serious and dangerous crime, thereby encouraging those who commit it to seek without delay the path of conversion.” (Pope John Paul II)

“Therefore, by the authority which Christ conferred upon Peter and his Successors, in communion with the Bishops – who on various occasions have condemned abortion and who in the aforementioned consultation, albeit dispersed throughout the world, have shown unanimous agreement concerning this doctrine – I declare that direct abortion, that is, abortion willed as an end or as a means, always constitutes a grave moral disorder, since it is the deliberate killing of an innocent human being. This doctrine is based upon the natural law and upon the written Word of God, is transmitted by the Church’s Tradition and taught by the ordinary and universal Magisterium. No circumstance, no purpose, no law whatsoever can ever make licit an act which is intrinsically illicit, since it is contrary to the Law of God which is written in every human heart, knowable by reason itself, and proclaimed by the Church.” (Pope John Paul II)

“Christian Tradition – as the Declaration issued by the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith points out so well – is clear and unanimous, from the beginning up to our own day, in describing abortion as a particularly grave moral disorder. From its first contacts with the Greco-Roman world, where abortion and infanticide were widely practiced, the first Christian community, by its teaching and practice, radically opposed the customs rampant in that society, as is clearly shown by the Didache…Among the Greek ecclesiastical writers, Athenagoras records that Christians consider as murderesses women who have recourse to abortifacient medicines, because children, even if they are still in their mother’s womb, ‘are already under the protection of Divine Providence’. Among the Latin authors, Tertullian affirms: ‘It is anticipated murder to prevent someone from being born; it makes little difference whether one kills a soul already born or puts it to death at birth. He who will one day be a man is a man already’. Throughout Christianity’s two thousand year history, this same doctrine has been constantly taught by the Fathers of the Church and by her Pastors and Doctors. Even scientific and philosophical discussions about the precise moment of the infusion of the spiritual soul have never given rise to any hesitation about the moral condemnation of abortion.” (Pope John Paul II)

“Some people try to justify abortion by claiming that the result of conception, at least up to a certain number of days, cannot yet be considered a personal human life. But in fact, ‘from the time that the ovum is fertilized, a life is begun which is neither that of the father nor the mother; it is rather the life of a new human being with his own growth. It would never be made human if it were not human already. This has always been clear, and… modern genetic science offers clear confirmation. It has demonstrated that from the first instant there is established the programme of what this living being will be: a person, this individual person with his characteristic aspects already well determined. Right from fertilization the adventure of a human life begins, and each of its capacities requires time – a rather lengthy time – to find its place and to be in a position to act’. Even if the presence of a spiritual soul cannot be ascertained by empirical data, the results themselves of scientific research on the human embryo provide ‘a valuable indication for discerning by the use of reason a personal presence at the moment of the first appearance of a human life: how could a human individual not be a human person?’. Furthermore, what is at stake is so important that, from the standpoint of moral obligation, the mere probability that a human person is involved would suffice to justify an absolutely clear prohibition of any intervention aimed at killing a human embryo. Precisely for this reason, over and above all scientific debates and those philosophical affirmations to which the Magisterium has not expressly committed itself, the Church has always taught and continues to teach that the result of human procreation, from the first moment of its existence, must be guaranteed that unconditional respect which is morally due to the human being in his or her totality and unity as body and spirit: ‘The human being is to be respected and treated as a person from the moment of conception; and therefore from that same moment his rights as a person must be recognized, among which in the first place is the inviolable right of every innocent human being to life’.” (Pope John Paul II, 1995)

“[E]very human being, even the child in the womb, has the right to life directly from God and not from his parents, not from any society or human authority. Therefore, there is no man, no human authority, no science, no ‘indication’ at all – whether it be medical, eugenic, social, economic, or moral – that may offer or give a valid judicial title for a direct deliberate disposal of an innocent human life, that is, a disposal which aims at its destruction, whether as an end in itself or as a means to achieve the end, perhaps in no way at all illicit. Thus, for example, to save the life of the mother is a very noble act; but the direct killing of the child as a means to such an end is illicit. The direct destruction of so-called ‘useless lives,’ already born or still in the womb, practiced extensively a few years ago, can in no wise be justified. Therefore, when this practice was initiated, the Church expressly declared that it was against the natural law and the divine positive law, and consequently that it was unlawful to kill, even by order of the public authorities, those who were innocent, even if on account of some physical or mental defect, they were useless to the State and a burden upon it. The life of an innocent person is sacrosanct, and any direct attempt or aggression against it is a violation of one of the fundamental laws without which secure human society is impossible. We have no need to teach you in detail the meaning and the gravity, in your profession, of this fundamental law. But never forget this: there rises above every human law and above every ‘indication’ the faultless law of God.” (Pope Pius XII, Address to Midwives)

“Another very grave crime is also to be noted, by which the life of the offspring hidden in the mother’s womb is attempted. Moreover, some wish this to be permitted according to the pleasure of the mother or father; others, however, call it illicit unless very grave reasons attend, which they call by the name of medical, social, eugenic ‘indication.’ Since this pertains to the penal laws of the state, according to which the destruction of the offspring begotten but not yet born is prohibited, all of these demand that the ‘indication,’ which they defend individually in one way or another, be recognized even by the public laws, and be declared free of all punishment. Nay rather, there are not lacking those who demand that public magistrates lend a helping hand to these death-dealing operations, something which unfortunately we all know is taking place very frequently in some places. Now as for the medical and therapeutic ‘indication,’ to use their words, We have already said, Venerable Brethren, how sorry We are for the mother, whose health and even life are threatened by grave dangers resulting from nature’s duty; but what reason can ever be strong enough to excuse in any way the direct murder of the innocent? For this is the case in point here. Whether this is brought upon the mother or the offspring, it is contrary to God’s precept and the voice of nature: ‘Thou shalt not kill!’ [Exod. 20:13]. The life of each person is an equally sacred thing, and no one can ever have the power, not even public authority to destroy it. Consequently, it is most unjust to invoke the ‘right of the sword’ against the innocent since this is valid against the guilty alone; nor is there any right in this case of a bloody defense against an unjust aggressor (for who will call an innocent child an unjust aggressor?); nor is there present any ‘right of extreme necessity,’ as it is called, which can extend even to the direct killing of the innocent. Therefore, honorable and experienced physicians praiseworthily endeavor to protect and to save the lives of both the mother and the offspring; on the other hand, most unworthy of the noble name of physician and of commendation would they prove themselves, as many as plan for the death of one or the other under the appearance of practicing medicine or through motives of false pity… [T]o seek to procure the death of the innocent is improper and contrary to the divine precept promulgated by the words of the Apostle: ‘Evil is not to be done that good may come of it’ [Rom. 3:8]. Finally, those who hold high office among nations and pass laws may not forget that it belongs to public authority by appropriate laws and penalties to defend the lives of the innocent, and the more so as those whose lives are endangered and are attacked are less able to defend themselves, among whom surely infants in their mothers’ wombs hold first place. But if public magistrates not only do not protect those little ones, but by their laws and ordinances permit this, and thus give them over to the hands of physicians and others to be killed, let them remember that God is the judge and the avenger of innocent ‘blood which cries from earth to heaven’ [Gen. 4:10].” (Pope Pius XI)

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Human relations theory and school administration

October 25, 2012

ABSTRACT

 

This paper attempts to examine and explain the Human Relations Theory, theoretical perspective of two of the scholars, the essence and impact of this theory on educational administration, also effort would be made to examine some critical views of some prominent scholars against the theory. And finally, we concluded the paper by summary and conclusion.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

HUMAN RELATION THEORIES (MOVEMENT)

 

INTRODUCTION

 

The human relations movement started between 1935-1950. It was a radical reaction to the scientific movement which treated human being as machines. The principles of human relations believed that organizations should see and treat the workers as human beings.   

It was a product of what is known as the Hawthorne studies, by George Elton Mayo, which examined the effects of social relation, motivation and employee satisfaction on productivity. Elton stressed the following:

  1. Natural groups, in which social aspects take precedence over functional organizational structure
  2. Upwards communication, is two way, from worker to chief executive, as well as vice versa.
  3. Cohesion and good leadership is needed to communicate goals and to ensure effective and coherent decision making.

Also Mary Parket Follet (1868-1933) who wrote a series of brilliant papers dealing with the human side of administration believed that the fundamental problem in all organization was in developing and maintaining dynamic and harmonious relationships.      

According to Mary Follet, a prominent pioneer of the new line in National Society for the study of education (1964); “it is not just a production and distribution of manufactured articles, it is also to give opportunity for individual development and self-actualization through better organization of human relationships. The process of production is as important as that of the welfare of the society as product of production”. 

  1. The formal work group the social environment employees has great influence on the productivity.
  2. To Mayo and others, the concept of social man (motivated by social needs, wanting-on the-job relationships and more responsive to work group pressure than to management control) has to replace the old concept of rational man motivated by personal economic needs. This theory marked the beginning of the recognition of human factor in the effectiveness of an organization.

Other proponents of the Human Relations Theory are Douglas McGregor, Chris Agris and Abraham Maslow. Under the human relations movement, McGregor’s theory X and Y and Maslow’s hieracy of needs theory. 

THEORY X AND Y

Oreamesi (2001) advanced that Doulas McGregor’s in his book “the human side of enterprise” postulated dichotomous view of the attitudes of managers towards employees. The two theoretical assumptions which are separately known as theory X and Y present diverse perception of the relationships between manager and subordinates in organizational life. 

Theory X portends a pessimistic view of workers. It assumes that employees are inherently lazy and will avoid work if they can. As a result of this management believes that workers need to be closely supervised and comprehensive systems of control developed. According to Michael (2011) if organizational goals are to be met, theory X managers rely heavily on threat and coercion to gain the employees compliance.    

        Theory Y presents a different orientation about the relationships between managers and employees. In this theory management assumes employees may be ambitions and self-motivated and exercise self control. It also believes that employees enjoy their mental and physical work.

        Its goes further to state that to them work is as natural as play and the average human bring does not inherently dislike work, given the proper conditions, theory Y managers believe that employees will learn to seek out and accept responsibility and to exercise self-control and self-direction in accomplishing objectives to which they are committed.

MASLOW’S HIERARCHY OF NEEDS    

According to Abraham Maslow, man always has needs to satisfy. These needs can be satisfied in a hierarchical order starting from the basic needs to the higher order needs. The theory further explains that once a particular need is satisfied, it ceases to be a motivator and another one arises. He classified needs into:

  1. Physiological: Basic physical needs like air, food, shelter, water.
  2. Safety: The need for physical and psychological security.
  3. Social: The desire for satisfying social relationships with others, like acceptance and feeling of belonging.
  4. Ego: This is the need for self-respect, recognition and appreciation by management.
  5. Self actualization: The desire to be an that one can be

Maslow succeeded in classifying human needs as least as an aid thinking for management. What is disputed in Maslow’s theory is the issue of successive saturation. Satisfying one need can help alleviate another, therefore they overlap.    

THE ESSENCE AND IMPACT OF THE HUMAN RELATIONS THEORY ON EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION   

The human relations theory occupied a great role in the development of organizational administration. During the era of Human Relations theory, numerous themes, ideas or notions were emphasized in education administration.

The Human Relations School of Management Thought, which emphasized treating employees in a human manner, has impact in the educational administration is several ways (Kimbough and Nunnery 1983). These include:

  1. Increasing effort to democratize the practice of educational administration.
  2. Growing emphasis on the utilization of concept from the social sciences, anthropology, psychology, sociology and the behavioural elements of economics and political sciences.
  3. Educational administrators were responsible for the promotion of relations between organization members that were mutually satisfying. Harmony and high staff morale were considered essentials for improved teaching and learning.
  4. This movement also proposed the implementation of methods of dealing with workers as a psychological being. Eg: teachers and non-academic staff in school system etc.
  5. Educational administrators began to stress the exercise of group authority within the legal frame work governing educational organizations.
  6. vi.         It made educational administration come to be seen as service activities contributing to the effective instructional programmes, as a means and not an end itself. Mochlman (1940), put this idea more clearly and when he stated that: “Administration in essentially a services activity, a tool or agency through the fundamental objectives of the educational process may be more fully and efficiently realized”.
  7. vii.        Human relations is seen as an attempt of humanization of labour that is of practical value for increasing profits and social responsibility.
  8. viii.      There emerged an increasing emphasis and support among educational administrators participative or cooperative decision making.
  9. ix.         It aims at addressing the social needs of workers and therefore elicits their cooperation as a workforce.
  10. x.           Finally, the advocates of democratic administration stressed that the executive educational administrator should take steps to satisfy psychological needs.

CRITICISMS OF HUMAN RELATIONS THEORY

The human relations movement made very significant contribution to management thought. It brought into limelight human and social factors in organizations; it made management to regard workers as human beings rather the cogs in the machinery. Furthermore, Human Relations Movement led to the emergence of participative management or decision making. It stressed the significance social or informal group in the organization. It also brought about the humanizing of management and sense of flexibility in bureaucratic enterprise. Finally, it led to a lessening of the emphasis on “one best way” of getting a work done.

In spite of its contributions, human relations approached ideas and practices have a number of criticism:

  1. In many case. Human relations programmes were implemented as a technique for manipulating people to comply with management directives instead of for bringing management to an understanding of human nature and thereby creating the desirable changes in the organization.
  2. Human Relations is also criticized for overemphasizing human needs at the expense of need for accomplishment or responsibility, or for organizational task and process. (Structured and technical aspects). Subsequently, there was lack of comprehensiveness in the notion advanced.  

iii.The effect of human relations theories did not result in the demise of the numerous applications of classical theory.

iv. Some of the postulates advanced by human relations theorists did not give the rise of derivations that were subject to empirical testing.

  1. There was a lack of evidence of confirm some of the derivations from the postulates advanced. For instance, Unde (2007) pointed out that the evidence is less conclusive with regard to the often assumed relationship between increase employee satisfaction and increased productivity. Human resources-oriented theories of the latter of the era generally assumed that good and meaningful performance leads to job satisfaction and not the reverse.

vi. Human relations theories’ idea posed certain dilemmas without solutions offered. For example, several of the theorists stressed the importance of satisfying both individual needs and organizational goals, but in the event of unresolved conflict between the two, what should be the direction?

  1. vii.    This work is considered by academics as counterpart to         Taylorism and scientific management.  

 

 

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION

Human relations movement emerged around 1930s in United State of America to cope with dehumaniztion of individuals in organizations; it emphasized on the study of the behavior of workers in organizations, and examined the effects of social relations, motivation and employee satisfaction on productivity.

The theory makes school administrators to view workers in terms of their psychology and fit within the school system rather than as inter-challengeable parts.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

REFERENCES

Etzioni, A. Modern organizations. New jersey, 1964

Follet, P. M. (1924); creative experience New York: Longman

Industrial Relations. Encyclopedia Britannica 2009

Mayo Elton (1953); The Human Problems of an Industrial      Civilization. New York, Macmillan. 

 

McGregor, (19) The human side of enterprise New York: Megrawli

Michael, P. (2011) Human relations. http://www.witipedia.com

Oraemes; J. C. (1997) introduction to politics of Education. Port-   Harcourt: Bengray

 

Pretomode V. F. (1991); “Educational Administration Applied         Concept and Theoretical Perspectives for students and        practitioners.   

 

Undie (2001). Educational Governance. Calabar: Tabson

www.oppapers. com/subject/human-relation (17th May, 2009)

www.scribd.com/doc3733980/human-relation (13rd Sep, 2010).

 

 

 

 

 

  

Book review – Cloth Girl

August 29, 2012

This book chronicles life in per-independence Ghana through the activities of Colonial officers, native Ghanians and Britain trained natives. it is a mesh of romance, heart-break, politics, religion and clash of cultures.

it pictures the activities of England trained,Ghanian lawyer, Robert Bannerman, who is married to the exquisite Julie. apart from acquiring British education, he also acquires British tastes, notably horse racing. His licentious appetite leads him to marry a young and sexy local girl Matilda, who had other plans for her life. The forced marriage takes her life on a spiraling ride!

The activities of the St John house hold which circle from the fetish to the mundane shows the mentality of the native Ghanians and their idiosyncrasies.

Alan, a British staff of The Colonial office and his audacious wife Audrey are poles apart in settling to life in hot Africa. Alan tries his best, but Audrey spins of the edge and finally abandons him to return to London.

Cloth girl is well written prose that almost everyone can relate to. The theme of conflict runs through the story.

Audrey, Matilda and aunty Dede stand out as the most exciting characters.

Author – Marilyn Heward Mills

Publisher – Cassava Republic

http://www.cassavarepublic.biz

August 21, 2012

Namse's Blog

 

 

According to a most ancient tradition the shroud is Jesus’ burial sheet. The one purchased from Joseph of Arimathea, which Jesus’ body was wrapped before burial and later found in the empty tomb.

The shroud is about 4.36 meters by 1.10 meters in dimension. It is woven in a three- to – one herringbone twill, composed of flax fibrils. It’s most distinctive characteristic is the faint, yellowish image of the front and back view of a man with his hands folded across his groin.

One of the great mysteries of the shroud is that science is at a loss to explain how the image came to be there. It was not painted, nor was it drawn. It lacks any form of colour pigments but has stains of AB type blood on it. Image analysis by scientists reveals that the image unexpectedly has the property of decoding into a…

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